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Copolymer comprising three constituents: acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene
Accident frequency rate
Number of accidents of Solvay personnel with a lost time for the injured person / million hours worked
Family of products derived from alkali metals, including compounds such as sodium carbonate and caustic soda. Solvay′s Alkalis Sector covers derivatives from soda production and electrolysis, and a range of other inorganic products.
Family of products derived from the allyl group CH2=CH-CH2 and used in particular to produce epoxy resins.
NH3 gas formed by combining nitrogen with hydrogen; a very important intermediate throughout the chemical industry.
Ammonium Hydroxide
Aqueous solution of ammonia




Best Available Techniques describe the most effective technology and methods designed to prevent and where is not praticable, to reduce emissions and their impacts on the environment. These techniques must be already developed under economically and technically viable conditions. BAT are linked to IPPC Directive
Clay (soft stone formed mainly of aluminum silicate) with a high capacity for absorption and decolorization
System developed for surfaces cleaning in the industry (moulds, equipments, …) and the restoration of building façades (removal of graffity, smog, …) without damaging the support
Additional processing technique which greatly improves the mechanical resistance of plastic parts (PVC bottles and sheets); drawing the material in two directions (transversally and longitudinally) rearranges the molecular chains, thereby increasing cohesion
Mixture of salt and water




Technique for processing plastics into sheets or film: the material is heated and mixed to obtain a viscous paste, which is passed through a series of rollers until it forms a continuous sheet, and gradually cooled before being wound into a roll.
Intramolecular ester of 6-hexanolactone; a cyclic compound in which the ring opens during polymerization to produce polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester.
Service developed for transport accidents of products, providing information based on Solvay safety data sheets, wehenever the accident occured
Caro′s acid
Common name for peroxysulfuric acid (H2SO5); can be produced from hydrogen peroxide
Caustic Soda
NaOH, sodium hydroxide; important intermediate in the chemical industry owing to its properties as a base
Manufacturing process whereby alkaline hydroxides are produced by treating the corresponding salt, e.g. production of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) by treating sodium carbonate with caustic lime
Recognition by an external body; certification can only apply to instruments; instruments are nor accredited but they may be certified
See Chlorofluorocarbons
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Family of fluorocarbons, composed of carbon (C), chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F); production is being phased out in all the signatory countries to the Montreal protocol (1987)
Plastics processing technique whereby a polymerized coating is spread over a material (textile, paper, non-woven fabric) to produce leatherette, wall coverings, etc
Plastics processing technique to produce multi-layered objects; coextrusion is used in the production of pipes, films, gas tanks, bottles, etc
Colon bacillus
A family of bacteria or bacilli including Escherichia coli, which is normally commensal in the human colon. Under certain conditions and depending on the strain, this bacteria can be pathogenic, causing infections of the urinary tract and diarrhea
Operation whereby an opening, temporary or definitive, is made from the colon to the skin to create an artificial anus
Plastics preparations in the form of granules, pellets, etc. ready for use in processing machines; depending on the intended use, stabilizers, fillers, pigments, reinforcing agents, etc. can be added to the basic resin
Control of emission
Techniques which are used to limit, to reduce, to minimise or to prevent emissions
Polymer whose chain contains a series of dissimilar monomers
Process of extracting gold from its ore by attacking the latter with sodium cyanide (NaCN) in the presence of oxygen (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or Caro′s acid (H2SO5); the effluents remaining once the gold has been separated contain toxic cyanide salts, which are oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide or Caro′s acid into non-toxic, decomposable cyanates




Molecule derived from ethane (CH3-CH3), in which two chlorine atoms replace the hydrogen atoms
Diffuse emission
Emission arising from direct contact of volatile or light dusty substances with the environment (atmoshere, under normal operating circumstances. These can result from:
– inherent design of the equipment (e.g. filters, dryers, …)
– operating conditions (e.g. during transfer of material between containers)
– or from a gradual release to other media (e.g. to cooling water or waste water)
– type of operation (e.g. maintenance activities).
Diffuse emission sources can be point, linear, surface or volume sources; multiple emissions inside a building are normally considered as diffuse emissions, whereas the general ventilation system exhaust is a ducted emission. Examples of diffuse emissions: opening of a filter or a vessel; diffusion through an open surface; volatile compounds emissions from sewers, loading/unloading operations without capture of vented vapours; dust from bulk storage, …
Dioxins and Furans
Family of aromatic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and chlorine. They are produced in numerous combustion processes and may be destroyed at high temperatures




Ecobalance or life cycle analysis
Analysis and measurement of the environmental impact of a product or process throughout its life cycle, from the production of the raw materials and energy to waste and recycling
Ethylene Dichloride: C2H4Cl2 raw material used to produce VCM thru thermal cracking
Physical fluid (air or water together with contaminants) forming an emission
Release of a quantity of substance, energy or vibration, into the environment (air, water, soil, …); the emission can be expressed as a total quantity in absolute or as a rate per a defined period of time.
IPPC definition: direct or indirect of substances, vibration, heat or noise form individual or diffuse sources in the installation into the air, water or land
EPER definition: direct release of a pollutant to air or water as well as the indirect release by transfer to an off-site wastewater treatment plan
Emission factor
Direct relation or fixed ratio between measured data or physical parameters and a quantitative emission value, based on operational experience or previous numerous measurements, and defined within some context and within boundary conditions, expressed as specific emission
Emission limit value
Mass, expressed in terms of certain specific parameters, concentration and/or level of an emission, which may not be exceeded during one or more periods of time; ELVs may also be laid down for certain groups, families or categories of substances, in particular those list in annex III of the IPPC directive
Epoxide compound with the formula CH2Cl-(CH-CH2)O, the raw material for epoxy resins
Hormone secreted by the sex organs in both women and men. Estrogen is prescribed for hormone deficiencies, e.g. to relieve certain symptoms associated with the menopause and to treat osteoporosis, amenorrhea and some cases of infertility
European Council of Vinyls Manufacturer, all western European PVC producer are represented in this organisation, which is leading member of Vinyl2010, the body managing the Voluntary Commitment of the industry chain
Plastics processing technique to produce films, pipes and smooth or corrugated sheeting. The plastic is forced through a flat or perforated annular die, which gives the object its definitive shape
Extrusion blow molding
Plastics processing technique whereby an intermediate product, a parison obtained by extrusion, is placed in a mold; a gas, generally air, is then blown in to force it to take the shape of the mold. This technique is used to produce hollow objects such as barrels, bottles and tanks




Flue gas purification
Technique of reducing the pollutant contents of a gaseous effluent (mostly smoke): may concern dust (solid particles), acid components, heavy metals, organic micropollutants (dioxins, furans); is generally severely regulated by official emission limits (e.g. European Directives)
Fluorinated polymers
Products produced by polymerisation of fluorine containing starting material being used for surface treatment of paper and textiles creating water resistant layers
Technique used in the production of gas tanks, for example; a fluorinated gas chemically modifies the surface of the plastic to increase the tank′s impermeability to petrol fumes
Substance which promotes the fusing of solids by reorganizing their crystal networks
Fortuitous monitoring
Monitoring achieved without any preliminary sampling plan during an anomaly or upset or unexpected conditions
Fugitive emission
emissions into the environment resulting from a gradual loss of tightness from an equipment designed to contain an enclosed fluid (gaseous or liquid) and supposed to be tight, basically caused by a difference of pressure and a resulting leak; examples of fugitive emissions are: leak from a flange, a pump, a sealed or tightened equipment… Fugitive emissions are a subset of diffuse emissions
see “Dioxins”




(from Galien) Any technique relating to the preparation, formulation, presentation and conservation of medicines (capsules, pills, intravenous and intramuscular applications, suppositories, etc.)
Good laboratory practice: set of principles that provides a framework within which laboratory studies are planned, monitored, recorded, reported and archived; these studies are undertaken to generate data by which the hazards and risks to users, consumers and third parties, including the environment, can be assessed for substances (pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, cosmetics, food and feed additives and contaminants, novel food and biocides); GLP helps assure regulatory authorities that the data submitted are a true reflection of the results obtained during the study and can therefore be relied upon when making risk/safety assessment
Good practice
Approach which provides a defined framework to the given activity; it does not preclude other approaches which may be more appropriate for a given requirement
Green Paper (PVC)
In 1996 the EU Commission started the “horizontal study on PVC”, consisting of 5 individual studies. The outcome of these together with other information is the body of the “green paper on PVC” issued in 2000
Greenhouse gases
A basket of 6 gases, Carbondioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Dinitrogenoxide (N2O), HFCs, PFCs and Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) which have a Global Warming Potential (GWP) and therefore have an impact on Climate Change




See “Hydrogen Peroxide”
Fluorine and chlorine containing hydrocarbons
High density, see polyethylene
High-density polyethylene, see polyethylene
Fluorine containing hydrocarbons which have no negative impact on the ozone and are mainly used for refrigeration, air-conditioning and insulation applications; they have replaced ozone depleting chlorinated hydrocarbons
Polymer obtained from a single molecular radical
High Production Volume = the ICCA HPV Chemicals Initiative is a voluntary action by chemical companies, primarily in Europe, Japan and North America, to deliver globally harmonised data and initial hazard assessments for some 1,000 High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
Composed of carbon (C), chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), with at least one hydrogen (H) atom. The first generation of CFC substitutes; they decompose in the troposphere and have little chance of reaching the stratosphere
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Composed of hydrogen (H), carbon (C) and fluorine (F). The second generation of CFC substitutes, containing no chlorine atoms at all
Hydrogen Peroxide
H2O2, aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide, more commonly known as peroxide bleach, are used for their oxidizing properties in the bleaching of paper and textiles, in the treatment of effluents, in pharmacology, and as an intermediate in the chemical industry. Hydrogen peroxide is broken down into water and oxygen in an alkaline environment or in the presence of metallic derivatives
The measurement of air humidity




level of concentration of a [substance] pollutant into the environnement after dispersion into the receiving media (air, water, soil,…) see also : ambient concentration: concentration of a substance in a medium resulting from the addition of an incremental concentration to a background concentration
Loss of containment of material or energy
Incineration of household waste
Technique of classical combustion (with air) applied to household waste, now most of the time associated with energy recovery: is often called “thermal valorization” to underline its positive role in saving non-renewable energy sources
Injection (molding)
Plastics processing technique to produce solid parts with a high degree of precision. The material is injected into a mold by a plunger; a press keeps the mold closed while the material cools. At the end of the process the mold is opened and the part ejected
Localized reduction or stoppage of blood flow in an organ
Standards published by the International Organization for Standardization; the 9000 series defines quality assurance models for all companies in the industrial and service sectors; certification indicates compliance with certain formalized working procedures
Quality of a polymer having a molecular chain with a regular structure




Kidney dialysis
Technique of filtering blood through a microporous membrane; ambulatory dialysis is an option whereby the patient wears a plastic pouch containing the dialysis fluid




Disaccharide (double sugar) with the formula (C12H22O11) present chiefly in milk; may be broken down into two other sugars, glucose and galactose
Disaccharide (double sugar) which can be hydrolyzed to yield fructose and galactose. Virtually unabsorbed through the intestinal wall and therefore reaches the colon unaltered. Its hydrolysis by the intestinal flora regulates the passage of water through the intestinal mucous membrane by a process of osmosis, thereby aiding the smooth functioning of the intestine and loose bowel movement
Low density, see polyethylene
Low-density polyethylene, see polyethylene
Polymer of aromatic alcohols which naturally impregnates wood vessels, making them impermeable and rigid; lignin represents about 25% of the weight of dry wood




Melted core injection
Plastics processing technique to produce hollow objects of complex geometry such as automotive engine parts. A metal core is placed in an injection molding press and the plastic injected around it. The core is an alloy with a lower melting point than the plastic, and can therefore be melted selectively at the end of the process. This gives the inner wall of the part produced an excellent surface finish
Membrane Filtration
Membrane filtration is the separation of the components of a pressurized fluid, effected by polymeric or inorganic membranes. The openings in the membrane material (pores) are so small that a significant fluid pressure is required to drive the liquid through them; the pressure required varies inversely with the size of the pores (basically classical orifice theory). There are now four commonly accepted categories or “classes” of membrane, defined based on the size of the material they will remove from the carrier liquid. Moving from the smallest to largest pore size, these are Reverse Osmosis (RO), Nanofiltration (NF), Ultrafiltration (UF), and Microfiltration (MF).
South American economic area comprising Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay
Method of detection limit
Minimum signal level required to identify qualitatively a determinand that can be measured, with a 99% confidence limit that the true value is greater than 0
Process intended to assess or to determine the actual value and the variations of an emission, based on procedures of systematic, periodic or spot surveillance, inspection, sampling and measurement or other assessment methods intended to provide information about emitted quantities and/or trends for emitted pollutants
Repeating unit in a polymer chain
Molecule which produces an antihypertensive effect




Double process: (1) flue gas purification process (NEUT = neutralization of acid components) based on the use of dry sodium bicarbonate, and (2) flue gas cleaning residues purification and recycling process (REC = recycling flue gas cleaning residues) allowing the industrial recycling of the sodic salts resulting from the flue gas cleaning with sodium bicarbonate in the chemical industry




Capable of affecting the taste receptors
one lesion causing the bones to become fragile; the most common form is post-menopausal osteoporosis
Ozone layer
A naturally occurring layer of gas (O3) which protects our planet surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation and makes life on earth possible




See “Polyamide”.
To chemically alter the surface of ferrous metals and alloys, e.g. prior to painting them.
CaCO3 produced through a controlled carbonisation process (chemical reaction) in order to reach high degree of purity and brightness and to control efficiently crystal form, particle size and particle size distribution. The crystals can optionally be coated to improve physical or chemical properties in applications
See “Polyethylene”.
Short chain of amino acids (from two to several dozen); active in cell communication as hormones, neurotransmitters, immunotransmitters, etc.
Peracetic (acid)
Acid with the formula (CH3COOOH), the peroxygenated form of acetic acid, obtained by the action of hydrogen peroxide on acetic acid (CH3COOH); used as a reagent in organic synthesis and as a bactericide.
One of the persalts; see persalt.
One of the persalts; see persalt.
Molecule derived from ethylene in which all hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine atoms; used as a degreasing solvent.
Permonosulfuric (acid)
Sulfuric acid with an extra oxygen atom.
Salt produced by the action of hydrogen peroxide on a mineral salt, capable of releasing active oxygen in contact with water.
Physiological salt solute
Saline solution isotonic with blood, i.e. where the solute concentration is equivalent overall to that of blood; used in intravenous rehydration.
Viscous paste formed by mixing PVC resin with a plasticizer; applied by dipping, coating, spraying, etc.
Polymethyl metacrylate.
EPER: individual substance or group of substance listed [into a specific selection of substances or category of substances][which can harm or affect the environment]; a potentially harmful agent that occurs in the environment as a result of human action
Polymer, usually produced by condensing a diacid and a diamine or by polymerizing cyclic lactam.
Aromatic polyamide in which at least one monomer contains a benzene ring, giving it improved mechanical, thermal and chemical resistance.
Polyester obtained by the polymerization of caprolactone.
Family of polymers with a carbonate group (O-CO-O) in the chain.
Polymer or organic molecule composed of several C-O-C ether groups.
Polyethylene (PE)
Plastic polymer composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms with the formula -(CH2-CH2)n-, obtained by polymerizing ethylene using high- or low-pressure processes. Depending on the polymerization process used, the density of the polymer may vary widely. Low-density PE is generally used for flexible applications (films). High-density PE is used in rigid applications, such as pipes, fuel tanks, barrels, bottles, etc.
Polymer or organic compound containing several -OH alcohol groups. Polyurethanes are manufactured using either polyether polyols or polyester polyols.
Generic name for polymers obtained from olefins; e.g. polyethylene and polypropylene.
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS)
Thermoplastic whose chain contains a sulfur atom between two phenylene groups (-C6H4-S-C6H4-); properties include high mechanical and thermal resistance.
Polypropylene (PP)
Thermoplastic compound composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, obtained by the polymerization of propylene (C H3-CH=CH2). The catalysts used in polymerization determine the stereochemical structure of the polymer, yielding a wide product range with highly diverse applications.
Polystyrene (PS)
Thermoplastic obtained by the polymerization of styrene (C6H5-CH=CH2).
Polymer containing the urethane group, generally obtained through the polycondensation of a polyol and a diisocyanate.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Plastic polymer composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, with the formula -(CH2-CHCl)n-; its monomer is vinyl chloride; PVC is a thermoplastic suitable for processing using most techniques.
Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC)
Copolymer with the monomer vinylidene chloride (CH2=CCl2); a thermoplastic barrier resin, highly impermeable to oxygen, CO2 and water vapor.
Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)
Polymer with the monomer vinylidene fluoride (CH2=CF2); a thermoplastic with remarkable chemical inertia and heat resistance properties.
See Polypropylene.
See Polyphenylene Sulfide.
Plastics formulation in powder form, containing, in addition to the base resin, the main additives, fillers and pigments, in appropriate proportions.
Substance which produces the same effects as progesterone, a hormone secreted mainly by the sex organs. Synthetic progestins are prescribed for menstrual disorders, genital pain, the prevention of miscarriage, certain forms of sterility and, in combination with estrogen, menopausal symptoms.
See Polyvinyl Chloride.
See Polyvinylidene chloride.
See Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)






Research and Technology.
Actual discharge (on a routine or unusual or accidental base) and dispersion of an emission into the environment
Process of periodic transmission of information about emissions and emission compliance to control authorities or to internal management of the installation
In polymer chemistry, plastics in an intermediate solid or semi-solid state.
Company created by WATCO (now called SITA-Belgium) and SOLVAY to build and operate a platform in France (near Dombasle) devoted to the purification and recycling of flue gas cleaning residues issued from the use of the sodium bicarbonate (see also NEUTREC® process); the purified salts coming out of RESOLEST are reused as raw material by the SOLVAY soda ash plant in Dombasle




Chemical reaction in which an ester is hydrolyzed by a base. In the case of fats, the ester is broken down into glycerol and fatty acid salts; the latter are soaps.
Monitoring of industrial emission by the operator of an industrial installation, according to a appropriate, defined and agreed sampling program and according to recognized measurement protocols (norms or demonstrated analytical methods or calculation/estimation methods)
Natural compound belonging to the indole amino family which acts as neurotransmitter (substance enabling communication within the nervous system); serotonin affects a person′s sense of well-being.
Carbonate-bicarbonate salt mixture.
Silicones or Polysilicones
Generic name for polymers with a chain containing silicon and oxygen atoms; silicones are particularly resistant to heat.
Sodium Bicarbonate
NaHCO3, generally known as bicarbonate of soda.
Sodium Carbonate
Na2CO3, also known as soda ash.
Sodium Hydroxide
See Caustic Soda.
Sodium Hypochlorite
NaOCl, known in solution as Javel water.
Specific emission
Emission related to a reference basis, like production capacity, or actual production (eg: g per tonne or per unit produced like: n of equipments, m2 of material produced)
Standardisation (gauging)
Set of all operations that are establishing, in specified conditions, the relations between values of the sizes reported by a measuring device or a measuring system, or the value represented by a measure or by a reference material, and the corresponding value of the size achieved by standards
EPER definition: any chemical element and its compounds, with the exception of radioactive substance
Sulfur Hexafluoride
SF6, molecule composed of one sulfur atom and six fluorine atoms; used chiefly in the synthesis of electrical insulators.
Substance which when dissolved in a liquid, even in very small quantities, greatly reduces surface tension; surfactants used in detergents are part lipophile and part hydrophile, enabling the suspension of fat in water.




Said of plastics with long chains joined only by weak bonds, enabling repeated heating and remodeling.
Said of plastics which harden when their polymer chains reticulate in response to heat, radiation and/or a reagent. The chemical bonds thus formed make the material insoluble, more rigid and more temperature-resistant. After reticulation, thermosetting polymers cannot be softened or mechanically recycled without first being broken down.
Organic compounds composed of three ring structures; name given to a series of anti-depressants which work by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenalin, two neurotransmitters involved in mood mechanisms; the transmission of noradrenalin generates a sensation of energy and a desire for action, serotonin affects a person′s sense of well-being.
Natural sodium sesquicarbonate ore. Occurs as a very dense gray-beige or brown rock.




See “Vinyl Chloride Monomer”.
Vinyl 2010 Voluntary Commitment
the first commitment of an industry sector having measurable targets and a transparent reporting system about progress of this industry towards more sustainability
Vinyl Chloride (VC)
H2C=CHCl monomer; polymerized to give PVC.




White Paper on Chemicals Policy
With the publication of its “White Paper on EU chemicals policy”, the European Commission proposed a major review of its legislation on chemicals. A single regulatory framework called REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals) to replace the current dual system for assessing risks of “existing” (placed on market before 1981) and new substances




Family of hydrated silicates which occur as porous mineral crystals; used for their absorptive properties, as catalysts, separating agents, sequestrants in washing powders, etc.
Said of a type of polymerization catalyst, after its inventor.



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